Tag Archives: steel cylinder

China factory Professional Metal Screw Spline Steel Lightweight Cylinder Pin Shaft

Product Description

Professional Metal Screw Spline Steel Lightweight Cylinder Pin Shaft

Data Sheet


Model NO. Aofa PR01

Appearance Shape


Journal Surface Roughness






Material Grade

Ck45, 20mnv6, 42CrMo4





Axis Straightness



Hardened Depth



Heat Treatment

None, Induction Hardened, Q+T


Chrome Layer Hardness



Chrome Thickness

15-50 Microns






Paper Sleeved, Shockproof Membrane, Wooden Case


Material Hardness

HRC15, HRC30, HRC55 Can Be Choice


Length Option

4m, 5.8m, 6m, 7.5m



20GP, 40HQ


Product Showroom


Product Description

Pin shaft is a kind of standardized fastener, which can be statically fixed and connected with the connected part.

It is mainly used for the hinge of 2 parts to form a hinge connection.

Scope of application: engineering machinery, excavator, aerial work vehicle, various lifting platforms, forklift pile driver, driving, rail transit, shipbuilding industry, mining equipment, metallurgical equipment and other industries

Product Characteristics

The pin shaft is usually locked with a cotter pin, which is reliable and easy to disassemble. The surface of this product is treated by special grinding and hard chromium electroplating technology, and then polished by mirror. It has the characteristics of wear resistance and corrosion resistance.


HangZhou CHINAMFG Machinery Co., LTD., formerly known as HangZhou Xihu (West Lake) Dis.n East CHINAMFG Petrochemical Fitting Corporation, was founded in 1997. CHINAMFG focus on the field of machinery manufacturing, committed to providing cylinder, flange (petrochemical accessories), pin, sheet metal parts and other mechanical products; Heat exchanger, ambient vaporizer, LNG handling arm and other gas engineering products for domestic sales and foreign trade import and export services. CHINAMFG is a leading enterprise who collects production, foreign trade, sales and service. Relying on our technology, taking quality as the core and efficiency as the soul, we aim to bring the best quality mechanical products to our customers, and is committed to becoming a one-stop solution expert of mechanical parts. It is determined to become a one-stop service supplier integrating research and development, production and sales. Enterprises adhere to the “all for the customer” service purpose, implement the “customer first, quality first, service first” business philosophy, the use of omni-channel sales model, to build a global sales network, open CHINAMFG machinery brand development road.

Aofa always follows the purpose of “providing value products for customers, providing development space for employees, and creating outstanding leading brands in the industry”, abides by the enterprise development concept of “creating value by heart”, and adheres to the mission of “manufacturing machinery high-quality products, creating a harmonious society”. The enterprise gathers many young and promising, positive people with lofty ideals, through the perfect management system and competitive incentive mechanism, aims to provide all-round development space for employees, and create a better future with the enterprise. Scientific management mode, intimate service attitude, for the enterprise to win credibility and public praise. In the fierce market competition to establish a good corporate image, and with many enterprises to establish long-term, stable strategic partnership, for the further development of the enterprise has laid a CHINAMFG foundation.

Q1:Can you provide a sample before a big order?
A:Yes, we can .

Q2:Are you able to make Non-standard or customized air cylinders?
A:Yes, we can, we have our own factory, we can satisfy the customers’ demands

Q3:How long is the warranty?
A:We offer 12 months warranty time.

Q4:Can I have my brand on the products?
A:Of course you can.

Q5:What is your delivery time?
A:3-5days if we have stock, 15-25days if we have no stock.

Q6.  Do you test all your goods before delivery?
 A: Yes, we have 100% test before delivery


After-sales Service: 1 Year
Warranty: 1 Year
Condition: New
Certification: CE
Customized: Customized
Material: Stainless Steel
US$ 10/Piece
1 Piece(Min.Order)

Request Sample

spline shaft

Can spline shafts be used in both mobile and stationary machinery?

Yes, spline shafts can be used in both mobile and stationary machinery. Here’s a detailed explanation:

1. Mobile Machinery:

Spline shafts find extensive use in various types of mobile machinery. For example:

  • In Automotive Applications: Spline shafts are commonly used in automotive drivetrains, where they transmit torque from the engine to the wheels. They are found in components such as the transmission, differential, and axle shafts.
  • In Construction and Earthmoving Equipment: Spline shafts are utilized in construction machinery, such as excavators, loaders, and bulldozers. They are employed in the powertrain systems to transfer torque and drive the hydraulic pumps or propel the machine.
  • In Agricultural Equipment: Spline shafts are used in agricultural machinery like tractors, combines, and harvesters. They help transfer power from the engine to various driven components, such as the wheels, PTO (power take-off), or hydraulic systems.
  • In Off-Road Vehicles: Spline shafts are present in off-road vehicles, including ATVs (all-terrain vehicles) and military vehicles. They enable power transmission to the wheels or drivetrain components, ensuring mobility and performance in challenging terrains.

2. Stationary Machinery:

Spline shafts are also widely employed in stationary machinery across various industries. Some examples include:

  • In Machine Tools: Spline shafts are used in machine tools, such as lathes, milling machines, and grinding machines. They provide torque transmission in the spindle or lead screw mechanisms, enabling precision motion control and material removal operations.
  • In Industrial Gearboxes: Spline shafts play a crucial role in industrial gearboxes used in manufacturing and processing plants. They transmit torque between input and output shafts, enabling speed reduction or increase as required by the application.
  • In Power Generation: Spline shafts are utilized in power generation equipment, including turbines and generators. They help transmit torque between the rotating rotor and the stationary components, facilitating energy conversion.
  • In Pump and Compressor Systems: Spline shafts are present in pumps and compressors used in various industries. They transmit torque from the motor or prime mover to the impeller or compressor elements, enabling fluid or gas transfer.

The versatility of spline shafts makes them suitable for a wide range of applications, both mobile and stationary. Their ability to efficiently transmit torque, accommodate misalignment, distribute loads, and provide reliable connections makes them a preferred choice in diverse machinery across industries.

spline shaft

Can spline shafts be repaired or maintained when necessary?

Yes, spline shafts can be repaired and maintained when necessary to ensure their continued functionality and performance. Here are some ways spline shafts can be repaired and maintained:

1. Inspection and Assessment:

When an issue is suspected with a spline shaft, the first step is to conduct a thorough inspection. This involves examining the shaft for any signs of wear, damage, or misalignment. Special attention is given to the spline teeth, which may show signs of wear or deformation. Through inspection and assessment, the extent of the repair or maintenance required can be determined.

2. Spline Tooth Repair:

If the spline teeth are damaged or worn, they can be repaired or replaced. Repair methods may include re-machining the teeth to restore their original profile, filling and reshaping the worn areas using specialized welding techniques, or replacing the damaged section of the spline shaft. The specific repair method depends on the severity of the damage and the material of the spline shaft.

3. Lubrication and Cleaning:

Regular lubrication and cleaning are essential for maintaining spline shafts. Lubricants help reduce friction and wear between the mating surfaces, while cleaning removes contaminants that can affect the spline’s engagement. During maintenance, old lubricants are removed, and fresh lubricants are applied to ensure smooth operation and prevent premature failure.

4. Surface Treatment:

If the spline shaft undergoes wear or corrosion, surface treatment can be applied to restore its condition. This may involve applying coatings or treatments to enhance the hardness, wear resistance, or corrosion resistance of the spline shaft. Surface treatments can improve the longevity and performance of the spline shaft, reducing the need for frequent repairs.

5. Balancing and Alignment:

If a spline shaft is experiencing vibration or misalignment issues, it may require balancing or realignment. Balancing involves redistributing mass along the shaft to minimize vibrations, while alignment ensures proper mating and engagement with other components. Balancing and alignment procedures help optimize the performance and longevity of the spline shaft.

6. Replacement:

In cases where the spline shaft is severely damaged or worn beyond repair, replacement may be necessary. Replacement spline shafts can be sourced from manufacturers or specialized suppliers who can provide shafts that meet the required specifications and tolerances.

It’s important to note that the repair and maintenance of spline shafts should be carried out by qualified professionals with expertise in precision machining and mechanical systems. They have the knowledge and tools to properly assess, repair, or replace spline shafts, ensuring the integrity and functionality of the system in which they are used.

By implementing regular maintenance and timely repairs, spline shafts can be kept in optimal condition, extending their lifespan and maintaining their performance in various mechanical applications.

spline shaft

How does a spline shaft differ from other types of shafts?

A spline shaft differs from other types of shafts in several ways. Here’s a detailed explanation:

1. Spline Structure:

A spline shaft features a series of ridges or teeth (splines) that are machined onto its surface. These splines create a precise and controlled interface with mating components, allowing for torque transmission and relative movement. In contrast, other types of shafts, such as plain shafts or keyed shafts, do not have the splines and rely on different mechanisms for torque transmission.

2. Torque Transmission and Relative Movement:

Unlike plain shafts or keyed shafts, which transmit torque through a frictional or mechanical connection, spline shafts allow for both torque transmission and relative movement between the shaft and mating components. The splines on the shaft engage with corresponding splines on the mating component, creating an interlock that transfers rotational force while accommodating axial or radial displacement. This feature provides flexibility and is particularly useful in applications where misalignment or relative movement needs to be accommodated.

3. Load Distribution:

One of the advantages of spline shafts is their ability to distribute loads over a larger surface area. The multiple contact points created by the splines help distribute the applied load evenly along the shaft’s length. This load distribution minimizes stress concentrations and reduces the risk of premature wear or failure. In contrast, other types of shafts may rely on a single keyway or frictional contact, which can result in higher stress concentrations and limited load distribution.

4. Design Flexibility:

Spline shafts offer greater design flexibility compared to other types of shafts. The number, size, and shape of the splines can be customized to meet specific design requirements. This allows for optimization of torque transmission, load-bearing capacity, and relative movement characteristics based on the application’s needs. Other types of shafts may have more standardized designs and limited customization options.

5. Application Variability:

Spline shafts find widespread use in various industries and applications where torque transmission, relative movement, and load distribution are crucial. They are commonly employed in gearboxes, power transmission systems, steering mechanisms, and other rotational systems. Other types of shafts, such as plain shafts or keyed shafts, may be more suitable for applications that require simpler torque transmission without the need for relative movement.

6. Installation and Maintenance:

When compared to other types of shafts, spline shafts may require more precise machining and alignment during installation. The mating components must be accurately matched to ensure proper engagement and torque transfer. Additionally, spline shafts may require periodic inspection and maintenance to ensure the integrity of the splines and optimal performance.

In summary, spline shafts differ from other types of shafts due to their spline structure, ability to accommodate relative movement, load distribution capability, design flexibility, application variability, and specific installation and maintenance requirements. These characteristics make spline shafts well-suited for applications that demand precise torque transmission, flexibility, and load distribution.

China factory Professional Metal Screw Spline Steel Lightweight Cylinder Pin Shaft  China factory Professional Metal Screw Spline Steel Lightweight Cylinder Pin Shaft
editor by CX 2023-11-01

China wholesaler Alloy Steel Forged Hydraulic Cylinder Electric Shaft near me shop

Product Description




Product Description

Product name Forging Steel Shaft 
Material 45#(C45),Q235(GGP,A53,St33)steel,carbon steel, medium carbon steel,
stainless steel alloy stee
Tolerance  +/- 0.005mm 
Standard  GB, ATSM,JIS,DIN
Heat treatment Normalizing,annealing,quenching&tempering,
Inspection Chemical composition test,Ultrasonic test,Magnetic test,Tensile strength test,
 Impact Test, Hardness Test, Dimension test
Packaging  Package adapting to CZPT transport or according to requirements
Delivery Time 15 – 25 days according to order quantity

Strictly quality inspection system can produce high quality products.

For each order,we can provide report for material chemical  testing,UT testing,   hardness testing ,mechanical property testing, size inspection,etc.

Production scenarios



Packaging & Shipping

In order to avoid the finish products rusted and damaged during the transportation ,we will design the right packing according to the shape,size and usage of the products.                                            





Q: Are you trading company or manufacturer ?

A: We are factory and trading company

Q: How long is your delivery time?

A: Generally it is 5-10 days if the goods are in stock. or it is 15-20 days if the goods are not in stock, it is according to quantity.

Q: Do you provide samples ? is it free or extra ?

A: Yes, we could offer the sample for free charge but do not pay the cost of freight.

Q: What is your terms of payment ?

A: Payment=1000USD, 30% T/T in advance ,balance before shippment.
If you have another question, pls feel free to contact us as below:

The Different Types of Splines in a Splined Shaft

A splined shaft is a machine component with internal and external splines. The splines are formed in 4 different ways: Involute, Parallel, Serrated, and Ball. You can learn more about each type of spline in this article. When choosing a splined shaft, be sure to choose the right 1 for your application. Read on to learn about the different types of splines and how they affect the shaft’s performance.

Involute splines

Involute splines in a splined shaft are used to secure and extend mechanical assemblies. They are smooth, inwardly curving grooves that resist separation during operation. A shaft with involute splines is often longer than the shaft itself. This feature allows for more axial movement. This is beneficial for many applications, especially in a gearbox.
The involute spline is a shaped spline, similar to a parallel spline. It is angled and consists of teeth that create a spiral pattern that enables linear and rotatory motion. It is distinguished from other splines by the serrations on its flanks. It also has a flat top. It is a good option for couplers and other applications where angular movement is necessary.
Involute splines are also called involute teeth because of their shape. They are flat on the top and curved on the sides. These teeth can be either internal or external. As a result, involute splines provide greater surface contact, which helps reduce stress and fatigue. Regardless of the shape, involute splines are generally easy to machine and fit.
Involute splines are a type of splines that are used in splined shafts. These splines have different names, depending on their diameters. An example set of designations is for a 32-tooth male spline, a 2,500-tooth module, and a 30 degree pressure angle. An example of a female spline, a fillet root spline, is used to describe the diameter of the splined shaft.
The effective tooth thickness of splines is dependent on the number of keyways and the type of spline. Involute splines in splined shafts should be designed to engage 25 to 50 percent of the spline teeth during the coupling. Involute splines should be able to withstand the load without cracking.

Parallel splines

Parallel splines are formed on a splined shaft by putting 1 or more teeth into another. The male spline is positioned at the center of the female spline. The teeth of the male spline are also parallel to the shaft axis, but a common misalignment causes the splines to roll and tilt. This is common in many industrial applications, and there are a number of ways to improve the performance of splines.
Typically, parallel splines are used to reduce friction in a rotating part. The splines on a splined shaft are narrower on the end face than the interior, which makes them more prone to wear. This type of spline is used in a variety of industries, such as machinery, and it also allows for greater efficiency when transmitting torque.
Involute splines on a splined shaft are the most common. They have equally spaced teeth, and are therefore less likely to crack due to fatigue. They also tend to be easy to cut and fit. However, they are not the best type of spline. It is important to understand the difference between parallel and involute splines before deciding on which spline to use.
The difference between splined and involute splines is the size of the grooves. Involute splines are generally larger than parallel splines. These types of splines provide more torque to the gear teeth and reduce stress during operation. They are also more durable and have a longer life span. And because they are used on farm machinery, they are essential in this type of application.

Serrated splines

A Serrated Splined Shaft has several advantages. This type of shaft is highly adjustable. Its large number of teeth allows large torques, and its shorter tooth width allows for greater adjustment. These features make this type of shaft an ideal choice for applications where accuracy is critical. Listed below are some of the benefits of this type of shaft. These benefits are just a few of the advantages. Learn more about this type of shaft.
The process of hobbing is inexpensive and highly accurate. It is useful for external spline shafts, but is not suitable for internal splines. This type of process forms synchronized shapes on the shaft, reducing the manufacturing cycle and stabilizing the relative phase between spline and thread. It uses a grinding wheel to shape the shaft. CZPT Manufacturing has a large inventory of Serrated Splined Shafts.
The teeth of a Serrated Splined Shaft are designed to engage with the hub over the entire circumference of the shaft. The teeth of the shaft are spaced uniformly around the spline, creating a multiple-tooth point of contact over the entire length of the shaft. The results of these analyses are usually satisfactory. But there are some limitations. To begin with, the splines of the Serrated Splined Shaft should be chosen carefully. If the application requires large-scale analysis, it may be necessary to modify the design.
The splines of the Serrated Splined Shaft are also used for other purposes. They can be used to transmit torque to another device. They also act as an anti-rotational device and function as a linear guide. Both the design and the type of splines determine the function of the Splined Shaft. In the automobile industry, they are used in vehicles, aerospace, earth-moving machinery, and many other industries.

Ball splines

The invention relates to a ball-spinned shaft. The shaft comprises a plurality of balls that are arranged in a series and are operatively coupled to a load path section. The balls are capable of rolling endlessly along the path. This invention also relates to a ball bearing. Here, a ball bearing is 1 of the many types of gears. The following discussion describes the features of a ball bearing.
A ball-splined shaft assembly comprises a shaft with at least 1 ball-spline groove and a plurality of circumferential step grooves. The shaft is held in a first holding means that extends longitudinally and is rotatably held by a second holding means. Both the shaft and the first holding means are driven relative to 1 another by a first driving means. It is possible to manufacture a ball-splined shaft in a variety of ways.
A ball-splined shaft features a nut with recirculating balls. The ball-splined nut rides in these grooves to provide linear motion while preventing rotation. A splined shaft with a nut that has recirculating balls can also provide rotary motion. A ball splined shaft also has higher load capacities than a ball bushing. For these reasons, ball splines are an excellent choice for many applications.
In this invention, a pair of ball-spinned shafts are housed in a box under a carrier device 40. Each of the 2 shafts extends along a longitudinal line of arm 50. One end of each shaft is supported rotatably by a slide block 56. The slide block also has a support arm 58 that supports the center arm 50 in a cantilever fashion.

Sector no-go gage

A no-go gauge is a tool that checks the splined shaft for oversize. It is an effective way to determine the oversize condition of a splined shaft without removing the shaft. It measures external splines and serrations. The no-go gage is available in sizes ranging from 19mm to 130mm with a 25mm profile length.
The sector no-go gage has 2 groups of diametrally opposed teeth. The space between them is manufactured to a maximum space width and the tooth thickness must be within a predetermined tolerance. This gage would be out of tolerance if the splines were measured with a pin. The dimensions of this splined shaft can be found in the respective ANSI or DIN standards.
The go-no-go gage is useful for final inspection of thread pitch diameter. It is also useful for splined shafts and threaded nuts. The thread of a screw must match the contour of the go-no-go gage head to avoid a no-go condition. There is no substitute for a quality machine. It is an essential tool for any splined shaft and fastener manufacturer.
The NO-GO gage can detect changes in tooth thickness. It can be calibrated under ISO17025 standards and has many advantages over a non-go gage. It also gives a visual reference of the thickness of a splined shaft. When the teeth match, the shaft is considered ready for installation. It is a critical process. In some cases, it is impossible to determine the precise length of the shaft spline.
The 45-degree pressure angle is most commonly used for axles and torque-delivering members. This pressure angle is the most economical in terms of tool life, but the splines will not roll neatly like a 30 degree angle. The 45-degree spline is more likely to fall off larger than the other two. Oftentimes, it will also have a crowned look. The 37.5 degree pressure angle is a compromise between the other 2 pressure angles. It is often used when the splined shaft material is harder than usual.

China wholesaler Alloy Steel Forged Hydraulic Cylinder Electric Shaft     near me shop China wholesaler Alloy Steel Forged Hydraulic Cylinder Electric Shaft     near me shop

China supplier CZPT Customized Super Large Carbon Steel Forging Cylinder Barrel and Shaft with Best Sales

Product Description

Densen customized Super large carbon steel Forging Cylinder Barrel and shaft

Product Description


 Cylinder barrel and shaft




 Forging and machining


 Carbon steel


1T~ 20T


Controlled by ISO 8062 CT4-6

Design Support

Pro-E, UG,SolidWorks,AutoCad, PDF  

Quality Control

Material, Dimension,Performance,inside defects,Balance test




Products show:


 Products shown herein are made to the requirements of specific customers and are illustrative of the types of manufacturing capabilities available within CZPT group of companies.

Our policy is that none of these products will be sold to 3rd parties without written consent of the customers to whom the tooling, design and specifications belong.  

Company Information

HangZhou New CZPT Casting and Forging Company is the sales company of HangZhou CZPT Group of Companies. Features of New CZPT simply summarized as below:

1. Trusted supplier of steel, iron & non-ferrous components;

2. Extensive documented quality program in place. 

3. Castings, forgings, stampings, machining, welding & fabrication services.

4. 9 related factories, over 50 joint-venture sub-contractors.

5. 25+ years of manufacturing experiences, 10+ years of exporting experience

6. 100% of products sold to overseas customers.

7. 50% of customer base is forturne 500 companies. 


Densen Group Architecture:

Processing support

Casting Service:

Casting is a manufacturing process in which a liquid material is usually poured into a mold, which contains a hollow cavity of the desired shape, and then allowed to solidify. 

 New Densen offers multiple investment casting, sand casting, permanent casting, die casting, low pressure casting, ESR casting, lost foam casting, etc. Material can be handled include steel, iron, non-ferrous. Single component weight range is from 0.01Kg to 150 tons separately. 

 Forging Service:

Forging is a manufacturing process involving the shaping of metal using localized compressive forces. New CZPT offers open die forging, closed die forging and ring forging services. Material can be steel, iron and non-ferrous. Material can be handled include steel, iron, non-ferrous. Single component weight range is from 0.1Kg to 50,000Kgs.

Stamping Service:

Stamping (also known as punching) is the process of placing flat sheet metal in either blank or coil form into a stamping press where a tool and die surface forms the metal into a net shape.

 New Densen-XBL has more than 60 sets stamping equipments, is the designed supplier for several famous bands automotive companies, has the full ability to offer whole processes from blanking, stamping, welding, to electrostatic spraying for worldwide customers.

Welding & Fabrication Service: 

Welding Frabrication is the fabrication process of metal structures by cutting, bending, then assembling the components together through welding 

 New CZPT offers manual arc welding ,laser welding and robot welding etc. UT, MPT,RT,PT all are available used for inspection, WPS &PQR (Welding Process Specification& Procedure Qualification Records) before production is available under clients’ requirement.  

 Machining Service: 

Machining is any of various processes in which a piece of raw material is cut into a desired final shape and size by a controlled material-removal process. 

New Densen-XBL has more than 60 sets precision machines incl. CNC center, boring, milling, lathing, etc., and more than 300 inspection instruments incl. 3 sets CMM with grade μm. Repeated tolerance can be maintained as 0.02mm. Meanwhile awarded by certificates ISO9001-2008; ISO/TS16949. New Densen-XBL specialized in high precise machining for small-middle-big metal components. 

3rd Party Inspection:

New Densen worked as 3rd party inspection center besides its sister factories or sub-contractors’ self inspection, Offers process inspection, random inspection and before delivedry inspection services for material, mechanical, inside defects, dimentional, pressure, load, balance, surface treatment,  visual inspection and test. Weekly project follow-up report together with pictures and videos, full quality inspection documentation available. 

New CZPT also designed as 3rd party inspection representative for several customers when their products made by other suppliers. 


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How to Calculate Stiffness, Centering Force, Wear and Fatigue Failure of Spline Couplings

There are various types of spline couplings. These couplings have several important properties. These properties are: Stiffness, Involute splines, Misalignment, Wear and fatigue failure. To understand how these characteristics relate to spline couplings, read this article. It will give you the necessary knowledge to determine which type of coupling best suits your needs. Keeping in mind that spline couplings are usually spherical in shape, they are made of steel.

Involute splines

An effective side interference condition minimizes gear misalignment. When 2 splines are coupled with no spline misalignment, the maximum tensile root stress shifts to the left by 5 mm. A linear lead variation, which results from multiple connections along the length of the spline contact, increases the effective clearance or interference by a given percentage. This type of misalignment is undesirable for coupling high-speed equipment.
Involute splines are often used in gearboxes. These splines transmit high torque, and are better able to distribute load among multiple teeth throughout the coupling circumference. The involute profile and lead errors are related to the spacing between spline teeth and keyways. For coupling applications, industry practices use splines with 25 to 50-percent of spline teeth engaged. This load distribution is more uniform than that of conventional single-key couplings.
To determine the optimal tooth engagement for an involved spline coupling, Xiangzhen Xue and colleagues used a computer model to simulate the stress applied to the splines. The results from this study showed that a “permissible” Ruiz parameter should be used in coupling. By predicting the amount of wear and tear on a crowned spline, the researchers could accurately predict how much damage the components will sustain during the coupling process.
There are several ways to determine the optimal pressure angle for an involute spline. Involute splines are commonly measured using a pressure angle of 30 degrees. Similar to gears, involute splines are typically tested through a measurement over pins. This involves inserting specific-sized wires between gear teeth and measuring the distance between them. This method can tell whether the gear has a proper tooth profile.
The spline system shown in Figure 1 illustrates a vibration model. This simulation allows the user to understand how involute splines are used in coupling. The vibration model shows 4 concentrated mass blocks that represent the prime mover, the internal spline, and the load. It is important to note that the meshing deformation function represents the forces acting on these 3 components.

Stiffness of coupling

The calculation of stiffness of a spline coupling involves the measurement of its tooth engagement. In the following, we analyze the stiffness of a spline coupling with various types of teeth using 2 different methods. Direct inversion and blockwise inversion both reduce CPU time for stiffness calculation. However, they require evaluation submatrices. Here, we discuss the differences between these 2 methods.
The analytical model for spline couplings is derived in the second section. In the third section, the calculation process is explained in detail. We then validate this model against the FE method. Finally, we discuss the influence of stiffness nonlinearity on the rotor dynamics. Finally, we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each method. We present a simple yet effective method for estimating the lateral stiffness of spline couplings.
The numerical calculation of the spline coupling is based on the semi-analytical spline load distribution model. This method involves refined contact grids and updating the compliance matrix at each iteration. Hence, it consumes significant computational time. Further, it is difficult to apply this method to the dynamic analysis of a rotor. This method has its own limitations and should be used only when the spline coupling is fully investigated.
The meshing force is the force generated by a misaligned spline coupling. It is related to the spline thickness and the transmitting torque of the rotor. The meshing force is also related to the dynamic vibration displacement. The result obtained from the meshing force analysis is given in Figures 7, 8, and 9.
The analysis presented in this paper aims to investigate the stiffness of spline couplings with a misaligned spline. Although the results of previous studies were accurate, some issues remained. For example, the misalignment of the spline may cause contact damages. The aim of this article is to investigate the problems associated with misaligned spline couplings and propose an analytical approach for estimating the contact pressure in a spline connection. We also compare our results to those obtained by pure numerical approaches.


To determine the centering force, the effective pressure angle must be known. Using the effective pressure angle, the centering force is calculated based on the maximum axial and radial loads and updated Dudley misalignment factors. The centering force is the maximum axial force that can be transmitted by friction. Several published misalignment factors are also included in the calculation. A new method is presented in this paper that considers the cam effect in the normal force.
In this new method, the stiffness along the spline joint can be integrated to obtain a global stiffness that is applicable to torsional vibration analysis. The stiffness of bearings can also be calculated at given levels of misalignment, allowing for accurate estimation of bearing dimensions. It is advisable to check the stiffness of bearings at all times to ensure that they are properly sized and aligned.
A misalignment in a spline coupling can result in wear or even failure. This is caused by an incorrectly aligned pitch profile. This problem is often overlooked, as the teeth are in contact throughout the involute profile. This causes the load to not be evenly distributed along the contact line. Consequently, it is important to consider the effect of misalignment on the contact force on the teeth of the spline coupling.
The centre of the male spline in Figure 2 is superposed on the female spline. The alignment meshing distances are also identical. Hence, the meshing force curves will change according to the dynamic vibration displacement. It is necessary to know the parameters of a spline coupling before implementing it. In this paper, the model for misalignment is presented for spline couplings and the related parameters.
Using a self-made spline coupling test rig, the effects of misalignment on a spline coupling are studied. In contrast to the typical spline coupling, misalignment in a spline coupling causes fretting wear at a specific position on the tooth surface. This is a leading cause of failure in these types of couplings.

Wear and fatigue failure

The failure of a spline coupling due to wear and fatigue is determined by the first occurrence of tooth wear and shaft misalignment. Standard design methods do not account for wear damage and assess the fatigue life with big approximations. Experimental investigations have been conducted to assess wear and fatigue damage in spline couplings. The tests were conducted on a dedicated test rig and special device connected to a standard fatigue machine. The working parameters such as torque, misalignment angle, and axial distance have been varied in order to measure fatigue damage. Over dimensioning has also been assessed.
During fatigue and wear, mechanical sliding takes place between the external and internal splines and results in catastrophic failure. The lack of literature on the wear and fatigue of spline couplings in aero-engines may be due to the lack of data on the coupling’s application. Wear and fatigue failure in splines depends on a number of factors, including the material pair, geometry, and lubrication conditions.
The analysis of spline couplings shows that over-dimensioning is common and leads to different damages in the system. Some of the major damages are wear, fretting, corrosion, and teeth fatigue. Noise problems have also been observed in industrial settings. However, it is difficult to evaluate the contact behavior of spline couplings, and numerical simulations are often hampered by the use of specific codes and the boundary element method.
The failure of a spline gear coupling was caused by fatigue, and the fracture initiated at the bottom corner radius of the keyway. The keyway and splines had been overloaded beyond their yield strength, and significant yielding was observed in the spline gear teeth. A fracture ring of non-standard alloy steel exhibited a sharp corner radius, which was a significant stress raiser.
Several components were studied to determine their life span. These components include the spline shaft, the sealing bolt, and the graphite ring. Each of these components has its own set of design parameters. However, there are similarities in the distributions of these components. Wear and fatigue failure of spline couplings can be attributed to a combination of the 3 factors. A failure mode is often defined as a non-linear distribution of stresses and strains.

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